Climatic Design of a Residential Villa and Finding Suitable Solar Heating Technology to Meet Thermal Needs in the Cold Climate of Iran

Document Type : Original Article


Department of Mechanical Engineering, Shahrekord Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shahrekord, Iran


The aim of the present work is to make maximum use of environmental potentials in order to save energy consumption and increase the quality of comfort in residential space through the design of buildings in accordance with the cold climate in Iran. Also, providing part of the heat needs of the building under study by solar energy is another way to reduce energy consumption. According to studies, and despite the fact that Iran has a high potential to use solar energy, so far no studies have been conducted on the climatic design of residential villas in cold climates with the approach of using solar water heaters. Also, the study of six different solar technologies to find the optimal system and also the one-year dynamic analysis of the optimal system are other innovations of the present work. In the present work, initially, with the help of the recommendations provided by Climate Consultant 5.5 software, a residential villa has been designed in accordance with the cold climate of Iran. Then, using TSOL 5.5 software, six systems based on solar heating and boiler have been examined to meet the thermal needs of the villa. After finding the optimal heating system, a one-year dynamic analysis was performed on it. By examining the climatic parameters, the strategies needed to ensure the comfort of the residents were implemented on a psychometric chart. The orientation of the building, the depression in the ground, etc. were among the suggestions to make the design of the villa compatible with the climate. The results of reviewing six solar heating systems showed that the solar system, including a hybrid tank with an internal heat exchanger, with the lowest number of collectors, had the highest heat efficiency and was able to provide 41.5% of the annual heat required by the villa.