School of ECE, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.
Nowadays, shortage of the water resources is a global issue. Water desalination is a solution that can be used to solve the water shortage problem. Several methods have been proposed for water desalination and are categorized to membrane and non-membrane procedures. The most popular membrane processes are electrodialysis (ED) and reverse osmosis (RO); in contrast, the most popular non- membrane processes are capacitive deionization (CDI) and distillation. All water desalination procedures need energy supplies. The solar and Photovoltaic (PV) energy is potentially a desirable green energy supply for water desalination especially for non-residential areas where the grid is not available. In areas such as deserts and offshore stations, the PV solar energy is a practical and cost effective solution for water desalination systems. Where the grid connection is available, the PV and solar desalination systems produce fewer emissions. The PV energy needs to be processed through power electronic power conditioning systems. This paper proposes the application of PV power and solar energy to supply the water desalination systems.